this - these

this - these
This and these are used in a number of different ways when you are referring to people, things, situations, events, or periods of time. They can both be used as determiners or pronouns. These is the plural form of this.
referring back
You can use this or these to refer to people, things, or events that have just been mentioned.

He's from the Institute of English Language in Bangkok. This institute has been set up to serve language teachers in the area.

Tax increases may be needed next year to do this.

These particular students are extremely bright.

The Treasurer went on to talk about the door-to-door and street collections. These had raised slightly less than last year.

You do not use this as a pronoun to refer to a person who has just been mentioned. Instead you use he or she.

He was known to all as Eddie.

`So long,' Mary said as she passed Miss Saunders.

In conversation, many people use this and these as determiners even when they are mentioning people or things for the first time.

And then this woman came up to me and she said, `I believe you have a goddaughter called Celia Ravenscroft.'

At school we had to wear these awful white cotton hats.

You can use this or these to refer to people or things that are very near to you. For example, if you are holding a book, you refer to it as `this book'.

This book is sensational.

The colonel handed him the bag. `This is for you,' he said.

Get these kids out of here.

I'm sure they don't have chairs like these.

This is not usually used as a pronoun to refer to a person. You only use it when you are identifying someone or asking them about their identity. For example, you use this when you are introducing someone. Note that when you are introducing more than one person, you use this, not `these'.

This is Bernadette, Mr Zapp.

This is my brother Andrew and his wife Claire.

You also use this to say who you are when you phone someone.

Sally? This is Martin Brody.

present situations
You can use this to refer to a situation that exists at present or to an event that is happening now.

You know a lot about this situation.

This is an opportunity to put into practice thoughts I have had for some time.

'this' and 'these' in time expressions
This is used in the following ways in time expressions:
You use it with `morning', `afternoon', or `evening' to refer to the morning, afternoon, or evening of the present day.

I've got to go to the University this morning.

I was here this afternoon. Have you forgotten?

Come and have a drink with me this evening.

However, you do not say `this day'. You say today.

I had a letter today from my solicitor.

You also do not say `this night'. You refer to the previous night as last night. You refer to the night of the present day as tonight.

We left our bedroom window open last night.

I think I'll go to bed early tonight.

This week, month, or year means the present week, month, or year.

They're talking about going on strike this week.

The Congress was held in Portoviejo earlier this month.

You usually use this with `weekend' or with the name of a day, month, or season to refer to the next weekend or to the next day, month, or season with that name.

Come down there with me this weekend.

Let's fix a time. This Sunday. Four o'clock.

Any chance of you getting away this summer?

However, you can also use this with one of these words to refer to the previous weekend, or the previous day, month, or season with that name.

His presence this weekend was especially ominous.

This summer he also authorised £15 million to provide emergency shelters for the homeless.

These days means `at the present time'. You usually use these days as an adverbial, but it can also be qualified and used as an ordinary noun group.

The prices these days are absolutely astronomical.

In these days of airline strikes and extreme weather conditions, it sometimes happens that the boss is unexpectedly marooned abroad.

'that' and 'those'
That and those are used in some similar ways to this and these. For an explanation of the differences, see entry at ↑ this - that.

Useful english dictionary. 2012.

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